From February 2017, information about the work of the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow is available and updated on the University of Glasgow website.

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Programme Themes

Measurement and Analysis of Socio-economic Inequalities in Health

Summary

Health inequalities remain constant or are increasing and it is unclear how to reduce them. We propose to improve methods for analysing routinely collected health data and population-based studies and to use novel linkages to social data, aiming to improve our understandings of inequalities in health and improve intervention strategies. The programme is organised into three themes: Health inequalities and linked data analysis; Natural experiments from observational data; and Enhancing cohort, survey and routine data sources. We benefit from our location in Scotland with its outstanding systems of linked routine health data, and our research team is recognised internationally for expertise in the analysis of these data and for methodological rigour and innovation. Our longer-term vision is to develop our reputation internationally as a centre of excellence for the study of inequalities in health using routine data.

Aims and Objectives

The aim of this programme is to improve the methodology for the measurement and analysis of health and inequalities in health using observational data with particular emphasis on improving our understanding of causes and informing strategies for intervention. Our objectives and associated research questions are:

1. To improve population health outcomes through conduct and translation of research based on the evaluation of policy or large-scale intervention.

  • How do different policies and interventions impact on health and health inequalities?
  • How can we improve the use made of observational data in general, and for the evaluation of natural experiments in particular?

2. To maximise the use of existing routine, linked and population-sampled data sources and, in so doing, enhance the return on the investment made in these resources.

  • How do we combine data sources to increase their power (surveys and cohorts) and utility (routine data) to improve our understanding of population health?
  • How do we harness the potential of these data to examine the influence of small clusters and to analyse rare outcomes?

3. To inform intervention strategy through research enhancing our understanding of health, inequalities in health and the determinants of health.

  • How do the different levels of the socio-ecological framework contribute to health and health inequalities?
  • How do health and health inequalities develop across the lifecourse and how influential are the different transitions?

4. To build capacity in the measurement and analysis of inequalities in health using observational data.

Publications

[in press]

Falster MO, Jorm LR, Douglas KA, Blyth FM, Leyland AH. Socio-demographic and health characteristics, rather than primary care supply, are major drivers of geographic variation in preventable hospitalisations in Australia. Medical Care [in press]

Green MJ, Popham F. Lifecourse models: improving interpretation by consideration of total effects. International Journal of Epidemiology [in press]

Kearns A, Whitley E. Perceived neighbourhood ethnic diversity and social outcomes: context-dependent effects within a post-industrial city undergoing regeneration. Journal of Urban Affairs [in press]

Minton J, Green M, McCartney G, Shaw R, Vanderbloemen L, Pickett K. Two cheers for a Small Giant, and why we need better ways of seeing data: rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic (WNH) Americans in the 21st century [commentary]. International Journal of Epidemiology [in press]

Sauzet O, Leyland AH. Contextual effects on health inequalities: a research agenda [editorial]. European Journal of Public Health [in press]

2017

Gorman E, Leyland AH, McCartney G, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Graham L, Robinson M, Gray L. Adjustment for survey non-representativeness using record-linkage: refined estimates of alcohol consumption by deprivation in Scotland. Addiction 2017;[epub ahead of print]

open access  

Green MJ, Espie CA, Popham F, Robertson T, Benzeval M. Insomnia Symptoms as a Cause of Type 2 Diabetes Incidence: a 20 year Cohort Study. BMC Psychiatry 2017;17:94

open access  

Katikireddi SV, Dundas R. Relative poverty still matters [commentary]. Lancet Public Health 2017;2:e126–e127

open access  

Minton J, Shaw R, Green MA, Vanderbloemen L, Popham F, McCartney G. Visualising and quantifying 'excess deaths' in Scotland compared with the rest of the UK and the rest of Western Europe. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2017;[epub ahead of print]

open access  

Shenkin SD, Zhang MG, Der G, Mathur S, Mina TH, Reynolds RM. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2017;8:137-148

open access  

Stewart CH, Berry P, Przulj D, Treanor C. Cancer-related health behaviours of young people not in education, employment or training ('NEET'): a cross-sectional study. BMC Cancer 2017;17:165

open access  

2016

Allik M, Brown D, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Developing a new small-area measure of deprivation using 2001 and 2011 census data from Scotland. Health & Place 2016;39:122–130

open access  

Allik M, Brown D, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Small-area deprivation measure datasets for Scotland, 2001 and 2011. Data in Brief 2016;7:1682–1686

open access  

Craig P, Dundas R, Leyland AH, Popham F. How successful was the English teenage pregnancy strategy? Response to Wellings K, Palmer MJ, Gear RS et al. Changes in conceptions in women younger than 18 years and the circumstances of young mothers in England in 2000-12: an observational study [letter]. The Lancet 2016;388:2604

Curnock E, Leyland AH, Popham F. The impact on health of employment and welfare transitions for those receiving out-of-work disability benefits in the UK. Social Science & Medicine 2016;162:1–10

open access  

Dykiert D, Der G, Starr JM, Deary IJ. Why Is Mini-Mental State Examination performance correlated with estimated premorbid cognitive ability?. Psychological Medicine 2016;46:2647-54

open access  

Falster K, Banks E, Lujic S, Falster M, Lynch J, Zwi K, Eades S, Leyland AH, Jorm L. Inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Australia: a population data linkage study. BMC Pediatrics 2016;16:169

open access  

Falster MO, Jorm LR, Leyland AH. Visualising linked health data to explore health events around preventable hospitalisations in NSW Australia. BMJ Open 2016;6:e012031

open access  

Geue C, Lewsey J, Wu O, Leyland AH, Quinn T. Geographic variation of inpatient care costs at the end of life. Age and Ageing 2016;45:376-81

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 2: General health and multiple conditions. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Rutherford L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2015: Volume 1 - Main Report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2016.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: Alcohol Consumption. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Rutherford L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2015: Volume 1 - Main Report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2016.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: Smoking. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Rutherford L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2015: Volume 1 - Main Report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2016.

open access  

Gray L. The importance of post hoc approaches for overcoming non-response and attrition bias in population-sampled studies [invited commentary]. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Journal 2016;51:155–157

open access  

Green MJ, Leyland AH, Sweeting H, Benzeval M. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socioeconomic background to alcohol consumption. Addiction 2016;111:1457–1465

open access  

Green MJ, Leyland AH, Sweeting H, Benzeval M. Socioeconomic position and early adolescent smoking development: evidence from the British Youth Panel Survey (1994-2008). Tobacco Control 2016;25:203-210

open access  

Green MJ. Pathways linking social class to smoking, drinking and psychiatric distress. In: Furlong A, editor Handbook of Youth and Young Adulthood. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016.

Katikireddi SV, Niedzwiedz C, Popham F. Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health. European Journal of Public Health 2016;26:814–816

open access  

Katikireddi SV. Counting the cost of alcohol: what you measure will shape the policy response [commentary]. Addiction 2016;10.1111/add.13674

open access  

Kearns A, Whitley E, Egan M, Tabbner C, Tannahill C. Healthy migrants in an unhealthy city? The effects of time on the health of migrants living in deprived areas of Glasgow. Journal of International Migration and Integration Journal 2016;[epub ahead of print]:1–24

open access  

Lhachimi SK, Pega F, Heise TL, Fenton C, Gartlehner G, Griebler U, Sommer I, Pfinder M, Katikireddi SV. Taxation of the fat content of foods for reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes [protocol]. Cochrane Databse of Systematic Reviews 2016;10:CD012415

open access  

Macdonald L, McCrorie P, Nicholls N, Ellaway A. Walkability around primary schools and area deprivation across Scotland. BMC Public Health 2016;16:328

open access  

O’Flaherty M, Bandosz P, Critchley J, Capewell S, Aspelund T, Bennett K, Björck L, Bruthans J, Hotchkiss J, Hughes J, Laatikainen T, Palmieri L, Zdrojewski T, on behalf of the Euroheart II Steering Group (including Davies CA Dundas R Leyland AH). Exploring potential mortality reductions in 9 European countries by improving diet and lifestyle: a modelling approach. International Journal of Cardiology 2016;207:286–291

open access  

Pannullo F, Lee D, Waclawski E, Leyland AH. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology 2016;18:53-62

open access  

Popham F. Converting between marginal effect measures from binomial models [letter]. International Journal of Epidemiology Journal 2016:1-3

open access  

Popham F. Re: Lies, damned lies, and health inequality measurements. understanding the value judgments [letter]. Epidemiology 2016;27:e15–e16

open access  

Schofield L, Walsh D, Munoz-Arroyo R, McCartney G, Buchanan D, Lawder R, Armstrong M, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Dying younger in Scotland: trends in mortality and deprivation relative to England and Wales, 1981-2011. Health & Place 2016;40:106–115

open access  

Seaman R, Leyland AH, Popham F. Increasing inequality in age of death at shared levels of life expectancy: a comparative study of Scotland and England and Wales. SSM-population health 2016;2:724–731

open access  

Whitley E, Benzeval M, Popham F. Associations of successful aging with socioeconomic position across the life-course: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of Aging and Health 2016;[epub ahead of print]

open access  

Whitley E, Deary IJ, Ritchie SJ, Batty GD, Kumari M, Benzeval M. Variations in cognitive abilities across the life course: Cross-sectional evidence from Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Intelligence 2016;59:39–50

open access  

Whitley E, Popham F, Benzeval M. Comparison of the Rowe-Kahn model of successful aging with self-rated health and life satisfaction: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Prospective Cohort Study. The Gerontologist 2016;56:1082-1092

open access  

Wraw C, Deary IJ, Der G, Gale CR. Intelligence in youth and mental health at age 50. Intelligence 2016;58:69–79

open access  

2015

Brown J, Neary J, Katikireddi SV, Thomson H, McQuaid R, Leyland AH, Frank J, Kiran S, Macdonald EB. Protocol for a mixed-methods longitudinal study to identify factors influencing return to work in the over 50s participating in the UK Work Programme: Supporting Older People into Employment (SOPIE). BMJ Open 2015;5:e010525

open access  

Christensen AI, Ekholm O, Gray L, Glümer C, Juel K. Response to Fergusson & Boden (2015): The importance of considering the impacts of survey non-participation. Addiction 2015;110:1514–1515

open access  

Christensen AI, Ekholm O, Gray L, Glumer C, Juel K. What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol, drug and smoking related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey. Addiction 2015;110:1505-12

open access  

Clemens T, Popham F, Boyle P. What is the effect of unemployment on all-cause mortality? A cohort study using propensity score matching. European Journal of Public Health 2015;25:115-21

open access  

Der G, Everitt BS. Essential statistics using SAS®: University edition. Cary, North Carolina, USA: SAS Institute Inc., 2015.

Gale CR, Batty GD, Cooper SA, Deary IJ, Der G, McEwen BS, Cavanagh J. Reaction time in adolescence, cumulative allostatic load and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adulthood: the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Psychosomatic Medicine 2015;77:493-505

pubmed  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 2: Alcohol consumption. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 3: Smoking. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 9: Inequalities in health risks. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Hope D, Bates T, Dykiert D, Der G, Deary IJ. More symmetrical children have faster and more consistent choice reaction times. Developmental Psychology 2015;51:524–532

open access  

Hughes J, Kabir Z, Bennett K, Hotchkiss JW, Kee F, Leyland AH, Davies C, Bandosz P, Guzman-Castillo M, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S, Critchley J. Modelling future coronary heart disease mortality to 2030 in the British Isles. PLoS One 2015;10:e0138044

open access  

Kearns A, Whitley E. Getting there? The effects of functional factors, time and place on the social integration of migrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 2015;41:2105 – 2129

open access  

Leyland AH, Ricciardi W, McKee M, Zeegers Paget D. Health inequalities are unnecessary and unjust [editorial]. Eurohealth 2015;21:2

open access  

Lumme S, Sund R, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Monte Carlo method to estimate the confidence intervals for the concentration index using aggregated population register data. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology 2015;15:82-98

open access  

Pannullo F, Lee D, Waclawski E, Leyland A. Improving spatial nitrogen dioxide prediction using diffusion tubes: A case study in West Central Scotland. Atmospheric Environment 2015;118:227–235

open access  

Phillips AC, Carroll D, Der G. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation. Anxiety Stress and Coping 2015;28:357-71

pubmed  

Phillips AC, Carroll D, Drayson MT, Der G. Salivary Immunoglobulin A secretion rate is negatively associated with cancer mortality: the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. PLoS One 2015;10:e0145083

open access  

Popham F, Williamson L, Whitley E. Is changing status through housing tenure associated with changes in mental health? Results from the British Household Panel Survey. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2015;69:6-11

open access  

Popham F. Deprivation is a relative concept? Absolutely! [editorial]. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2015;69:199-200

open access  

Robertson T, Benzeval M, Whitley E, Popham F. The role of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors in mediating the association between socioeconomic position and allostatic load. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2015;45:41-9

open access  

Robison O, Kearns A, Gray L, Bond L, Henderson M. Mixed tenure communities as a policy instrument for educational outcomes in a deprived urban context?. Urban Research & Practice 2015;9:131-157

open access  

Seaman R, Dundas R, Leyland AH, Mitchell R, Popham F. How much of the difference in life expectancy between Scottish cities does deprivation explain? Calculating and decomposing inequalities across deprivation deciles. BMC Public Health 2015;15:1057

open access  

Seaman R, Popham F, Leyland A. How have trends in lifespan variation changed since 1950? A comparative study of 17 Western European countries. European Journal of Public Health 2015;26:360-2

open access  

2014

Benzeval M, Bond L, Campbell M, Egan M, Lorenc T, Petticrew M, Popham F. How does money influence health?. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York, 2014

open access  

Brown D, Allik M, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Carstairs Scores for Scottish postcode sectors, datazones and output areas from the 2011 Census. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional Paper, Glasgow, 2014

open access  

Campbell M, Egan M, Lorenc T, Bond L, Popham F, Fenton C, Benzeval M. Considering methodological options for reviews of theory: illustrated by a review of theories linking income and health. Systematic Reviews 2014;3:114

open access  

Der G, Everitt BS. A handbook of statistical graphics using SAS ODS. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2014.

Dodds R, Syddall H, Cooper R, Benzeval M, Deary I, Dennison E, Der G, Gale C, Inskip H, Jagger C, Kirkwood T, Lawlor D, Robinson S, Starr J, Steptoe A, Tilling K, Kuh D, Cooper C, Sayer AA. Grip strength across the life course: normative data from twelve British studies. PLoS One 2014;9:e11363

open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. Early-life school, neighborhood, and family influences on adult health: a multilevel cross-classified analysis of the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180:197-207

open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. Multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity: a fundamental critique of the current probabilistic risk factor epidemiology [response to invited commentary]. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180:208-12

open access  

Dundas R, Ouédraogo S, Bond L, Briggs AH, Chalmers J, Gray R, Wood R, Leyland AH. Evaluation of Health in Pregnancy grants in Scotland: a protocol for a natural experiment. BMJ Open 2014;4:e006547

open access  

Gardner M, Bann D, Wiley L, Cooper R, Hardy R, Nitsch D, Martin-Ruiz C, Shiels P, Sayer AA, Barbieri M, Bekaert S, Bischoff C, Brooks-Wilson A, Chen W, Cooper C, Christensen K, Meyer TD, Deary I, Der G, Roux AD, Fitzpatrick A, Hajat A, Halaschek-Wiener J, Harris S, Hunt SC, Jagger C, Jeon HS, Kaplan R, Kimura M, Lansdorp P, Li C, Maeda T, Mangino M, Nawrot TS, Nilsson P, Nordfjall K, Paolisso G, Ren F, Riabowol K, Robertson T, Roos G, Staessen JA, Spector T, Tang N, Unryn B, Harst PVD, Woo J, Xing C, Yadegarfar ME, Park JY, Young N, Kuh D, Zglinicki TV, Ben-Shlomo Y. Gender and telomere length: systematic review and meta-analysis. Experimental Gerontology 2014;51:15–27

open access  

Gaye A, Marcon Y, Isaeva J, LaFlamme P, Turner A, Jones EM, Minion J, Boyd AW, Newby CJ, Nuotio ML, Wilson OB, Murtagh B, Demir I, Doiron D, Giepmans L, Wallace SE, Budin-Ljøsne I, Schmidt CO, Boffetta P, Boniol M, Bota M, Carter KW, deKlerk N, Dibben C, Francis RW, Hiekkalinna T, Hveem K, Kvaløy K, Millar S, Perry IJ, Peters A, Phillips CM, Popham F, et al . DataSHIELD: taking the analysis to the data, not the data to the analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology 2014;43

open access  

Gorman E, Leyland AH, McCartney G, White IR, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Graham L, Gray L. Assessing the representativeness of population-sampled health surveys through linkage to administrative data on alcohol-related outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180 :941-948

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: Smoking. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: Alcohol consumption. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: General health, mental wellbeing and caring. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Green MJ, Espie CA, Benzeval M. Social class and gender patterning of insomnia symptoms and psychiatric distress: a 20-year prospective cohort study. BMC Psychiatry 2014;14:152

open access  

Green MJ. Latent class analysis was accurate but sensitive in data simulations. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2014;67:1157–1162

open access  

Hagger-Johnson G, Deary IJ, Davies CA, Weiss A, Batty GD. Reaction time and mortality from the major causes of death: the NHANES-III study. PLoS One 2014;9:e82959

open access  

Hotchkiss JW, Davies CA, Dundas R, Hawkins N, Jhund PS, Scholes S, Bajekal M, O’Flaherty M, Critchley J, Leyland AH, Capewell S. Explaining trends in Scottish coronary heart disease mortality between 2000 and 2010: socioeconomic analysis using the IMPACTSEC model. The BMJ 2014;348:g1088

open access  

Jani BD, Cavanagh J, Barry S, Der G, Sattar N, Mair FS. Revisiting the J shaped curve, exploring the association between cardiovascular risk factors and concurrent depressive symptoms in patients with cardiometabolic disease: findings from a large cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014;14:139

open access  

Kearns A, Bailey N, Gannon M, Livingston M, Leyland AH. 'All in it together?' Social cohesion in a divided society: attitudes to income inequality and redistribution in a residential context. Journal of Social Policy 2014;43:453-477

open access  

Klabbers G, Bosma H, Kempen GI, Benzeval M, Van den Akker M, van Eijk JT. Do psychosocial profiles predict self-rated health, morbidity and mortality in late middle-aged and older people?. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2014;37:357–368

pubmed  open access  

Levin KA, Dundas R, Miller M, McCartney G. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland. Social Science & Medicine 2014;107:162–170

open access  

Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Hierarchical linear modeling. In: Michalos AC, editor Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014:2861-2863.

Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In: Michalos AC, editor Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014:3367-3368.

Miller C, Magdalina A, Willows RI, Bowman AW, Scott EM, Lee D, Burgess C, Pope L, Pannullo F, Haggarty R. Spatiotemporal statistical modelling of long-term change in river nutrient concentrations in England & Wales. Science of the Total Environment 2014;466-467:914-923

open access  

Ralston K, Dundas R, Leyland AH. A comparison of the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) 2004 with the 2009+1 SIMD: does choice of measure affect the interpretation of inequality in mortality?. International Journal of Health Geographics 2014;13

open access  

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, Eades SJ, Churches TR, O’Loughlin AJ, Leyland AH. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage. Health & Place 2014;28:58–66

open access  

Randall DA, Reinten T, Maher L, Lujic S, Stewart J, Keay L, Leyland AH, Jorm L. Disparities in cataract surgery between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2014;42:629-36

pubmed  

Roberts BA, Deary IJ, Dykiert D, Der G, Batty GD. Reaction time and incident cancer: 25 years of follow-up of study members in the UK health and lifestyle survey. PLoS One 2014;9:e95054

Robertson T, Benzeval M. Do mismatches between pre- and post-natal environments influence adult physiological functioning?. PLoS One 2014;9:e86953

open access  

Robertson T, Popham F, Benzeval M. Socioeconomic position across the lifecourse and allostatic load: data from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 cohort study. BMC Public Health 2014;14:184

open access  

Shaw RJ, Benzeval M, Popham F. To what extent do financial strain and labour force status explain social class inequalities in self-rated health? Analysis of 20 countries in the European Social Survey. PLoS One 2014;9:e110362

open access  

Shaw RJ, Green MJ, Popham F, Benzeval M. Differences in adiposity trajectories by birth cohort and childhood social class: evidence from cohorts born in the 1930s, 1950s and 1970s in the West of Scotland. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2014;68:550–556

open access  

Sweeting H, Bhaskar A, Benzeval M, Popham F, Hunt K. Changing gender roles and attitudes and their implications for well-being around the new millennium. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2014;49:791-809

open access  

Whitley E, Batty DG, Hunt K, Popham F, Benzeval M. The role of health behaviours across the life course in the socioeconomic patterning of all-cause mortality: the West of Scotland Twenty-07 prospective cohort study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2014;47:148-157

open access  

2013

Bailey N, Gannon M, Kearns A, Livingston M, Leyland AH. Living apart, losing sympathy? How neighbourhood context affects attitudes to redistribution and to welfare recipients. Environment and Planning A 2013;45:2154–2175

open access  

Benzeval M, Green MJ, Macintyre S. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study. PLoS One 2013;8:e3975

open access  

Carroll D, Phillips AC, Der G, Hunt K, Bibbey A, Benzeval M, Ginty A. Low forced expiratory volume is associated with blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress in a community sample of middle-aged men and women. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2013;90:17–20

pubmed  open access  

Claussen B, Næss Ø, Reime LJ, Leyland AH. Firm downsizing and diagnosis-specific disability pensioning in Norway. BMC Public Health 2013;13:27

open access  

Der G, Everitt BS. Applied medical statistics using SAS. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC, 2013.

Dibben C, Popham F. Are health inequalities evident at all ages? An ecological study of English mortality records. European Journal of Public Health 2013;23:39-45

pubmed  

Falster MO, Randall DA, Lujica S, Ivers R, Leyland AH, Jorma LR. Disentangling the impacts of geography and Aboriginality on serious road transport injuries in New South Wales. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2013;54:32-8

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH, Benzeval M, Watt GCM. Explaining the social patterning of lung function in adulthood at different ages: the roles of childhood precursors, health behaviours and environmental factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2013;67:905-91

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: Smoking. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: Obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: Long-term conditions. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, White IR, McCartney G, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Gorman E, Leyland AH. Use of record-linkage to handle non-response and improve alcohol consumption estimates in health survey data: a study protocol. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002647

open access  

Green MJ, Benzeval M. The development of socioeconomic inequalities in anxiety and depression symptoms over the lifecourse. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2013;48:1951-1961

pubmed  open access  

Green MJ, Leyland AH, Sweeting H, Benzeval M. Socioeconomic position and adolescent trajectories in smoking, drinking and psychiatric distress. Journal of Adolescent Health 2013;53:202-08

open access  

Hannah MK, Batty GD, Benzeval M. Common mental disorders and mortality in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: comparing the General Health Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2013;67:558-563

open access  

Hope D, Bates TC, Dykiert D, Der G, Deary IJ. Bodily symmetry increases across human childhood. Early Human Development 2013;89:531-5

Hotchkiss JW, Davies CA, Leyland AH. Adiposity has differing associations with incident coronary heart disease and mortality in the Scottish population: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. International Journal of Obesity 2013;37:732-739

pubmed  open access  

Katikireddi SV, Gorman DR, Leyland AH. A comparison of trends in caesarean section rates in former communist (transition) countries and other European countries. European Journal of Public Health 2013;23:381-3

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH. Youth unemployment at times of recession: what does the future hold? [editorial]. European Journal of Public Health 2013;23:527

open access  

Mackay DF, Gray L, Pell JP. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on overweight and obesity: Scotland-wide, cross-sectional study on 40,036 participants. BMC Public Health 2013;348

pubmed  open access  

McCallum AK, Manderbacka K, Arffman M, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Socioeconomic differences in mortality amenable to health care among Finnish adults 1992-2003: 12 year follow up using individual level linked population register data. BMC Health Services Research 2013;13:3

open access  

McCartney G, Leyland AH, Fischbacher C, Whyte B, Walsh D, Stockton D. Commentary: long-term monitoring of health inequalities in Scotland - a response to Frank and Haw. Milbank Quarterly 2013;91:186-191

McCartney G, Myers F, Taulbut M, MacDonald W, Robinson M, Scott S, Mitchell R, Millard D, Tod E, Curnock E, Katikireddi SV, Craig N. Making a bad situation worse? The impact of welfare reform and the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Scotland (baseline report). Edinburgh, 2013

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Mok PLH, Leyland AH, Kapur N, Windfuhr K, Appleby L, Platt S, Webb RT. Why does Scotland have a higher suicide rate than England? An area-level investigation of health and social factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2013;67:63-70

pubmed  open access  

Pannullo F. Associations between air pollution, deprivation and mortality in seven Scottish councils: a multi-level study [MPH], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2013.

Phillips AC, Robertson T, Carroll D, Der G, Shiels PG, McGlynn L, Benzeval M. Do symptoms of depression predict telomere length? Evidence from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Psychosomatic Medicine 2013;75:288-296

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Popham F, Dibben C, Bambra C. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2013;67:412-418

pubmed  open access  

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, O’Loughlin A, Eades S, Leyland AH. Disparities in revascularization rates after acute myocardial infarction between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Australia. Circulation 2013;127:811-819

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Randall DA, Lujic S, Leyland AH, Jorm LR. Statistical methods to enhance reporting of Aboriginal Australians in routine hospital records using data linkage affect estimates of health disparities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2013;37:442–449

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Ritchie SJ, Bates TC, Der G, Starr JM, Deary IJ. Education is associated with higher later-life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed. Psychology and Aging 2013;28:515-52

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Robertson T, Batty GD, Der G, Fenton C, Shiels PG, Benzeval M. Is socioeconomic status associated with biological aging as measured by telomere length?. Epidemiologic Reviews 2013;35:98–111

pubmed  open access  

Seaman R. Which age groups are driving mortality in Glasgow? Decomposing life expectancy inequalities across all deprivation deciles [MPH], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2013.

Silveirinha de Oliveira E, Aspinall P, Briggs A, Cummins S, Leyland AH, Mitchell R, Roe J, Ward Thompson C. How effective is the Forestry Commission Scotland’s woodland improvement programme ‘Woods In and Around Towns’ (WIAT) at improving psychological wellbeing in deprived urban communities? [protocol]. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003648

open access  

Skivington K. Incapacity benefit, employment transitions and health: evidence from longitudinal data and a qualitative study [PhD], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2013.

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2012

Batty GD, Bhaskar A, Emslie C, Benzeval M, Der G, Lewar H, Hunt K. Association of life course socioeconomic disadvantage with future problem drinking and heavy drinking: gender differentials in the West of Scotland. International Journal of Public Health 2012;57:119-26

pubmed  open access  

Batty GD, Hamer M, Der G. Does somatic illness explain the association between common mental disorder and elevated mortality? Findings from extended follow-up of study members in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2012;66:647-649

pubmed  open access  

Brown D, Benzeval M, Gayle V, Macintyre S, O'Reilly D, Leyland AH. Childhood residential mobility and health in late adolescence and adulthood: findings from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2012;66:942-950

pubmed  open access  

Brown D, O'Reilly D, Gayle V, Macintyre S, Benzeval M, Leyland AH. Socio-demographic and health characteristics of individuals left behind in deprived and declining areas in Scotland. Health & Place 2012;18:440-444

pubmed  open access  

Carroll D, Ginty A, Der G, Hunt K, Benzeval M, Phillips AC. Increased blood pressure reactions to acute mental stress are associated with 16-year cardiovascular disease mortality. Psychophysiology 2012;49:1444–1448

open access  

Cooper C, Frank J, Leyland AH, Hardy R, Lawlor DA, Wareham NJ, Dezateux C, Inskip H. Using cohort studies in lifecourse epidemiology. Public Health 2012;126:190-192

pubmed  open access  

Der G, Batty GD, Benzeval M, Deary IJ, Green MJ, McGlynn L, McIntyre A, Robertson T, Shiels PG. Is telomere length a biomarker for aging: cross-sectional evidence from the West of Scotland?. PLoS One 2012;7:e45166

open access  

Dykiert D, Der G, Starr JM, Deary IJ. Age differences in intra-individual variability in simple and choice reaction time: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2012;7:e45759

pubmed  open access  

Dykiert D, Der G, Starr JM, Deary IJ. Sex differences in reaction time mean and intraindividual variability across the life span. Developmental Psychology 2012;48:1262-76

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Ellaway A, Benzeval M, Green M, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. 'Getting sicker quicker': does living in a more deprived neighbourhood mean your health deteriorates faster?. Health & Place 2012;18:132-7

pubmed  open access  

Gray CM, Hunt K, Lorimer K, Anderson AS, Benzeval M, Wyke S. Words and context matter [rapid response letter]. BMJ 2012;344

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Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 3: Diet. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 2: children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:62-85.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 2: children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:101-115.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 1: adults. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:185-205.

Gray L, Merlo J, Mindell J, Hallqvist J, Tafforeau J, O'Reilly D, Regidor E, Næss Ø, Kelleher C, Helakorpi S, Lange C, Leyland AH. International differences in self-reported health measures in 33 major metropolitan areas in Europe. European Journal of Public Health 2012;22:40-7

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Smith GD, McConnachie A, Watt GCM, Hart CL, Upton MN, Macfarlane PW, Batty GD. Parental height in relation to offspring coronary heart disease: examining transgenerational influences on health using the west of Scotland Midspan Family Study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2012;41:1776-85

open access  

Green MJ, Espie CA, Hunt K, Benzeval M. The longitudinal course of insomnia symptoms: inequalities by gender and occupational class among two different age cohorts followed for 20 years in the West of Scotland. Sleep 2012;35:815-23

pubmed  open access  

Hotchkiss J W, Davies C, Gray L, Bromley C, Capewell S, Leyland AH. Trends in cardiovascular disease biomarkers and their socioeconomic patterning among adults in the Scottish population 1995 to 2009: cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2012;2:e000771

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Jorm LR, Leyland AH, Blyth FM, Elliot RF, Douglas KM, Redman S, on behalf of the APHID investigators . Assessing Preventable Hospitalisation InDicators (APHID): protocol for a data linkage study using cohort study and administrative data. BMJ Open 2012;2:e002344

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Katikireddi SV, Niedzwiedz CL, Popham F. Trends in population mental health before and after the 2008 recession: a repeat cross-sectional analysis of the 1991–2010 Health Surveys of England. BMJ Open 2012;2:e001790

open access  

Leyland AH. Alcohol, financial crisis and reform: learning from the Russian experience [editorial]. European Journal of Public Health 2012;22:300

pubmed  open access  

Lumme S, Sund R, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Socioeconomic equity in amenable mortality in Finland 1992-2008. Social Science & Medicine 2012;75:905-13

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Mok PL, Kapur N, Windfhur K, Leyland AH, Appleby L, Platt S, Webb RT. Trends in national suicide rates for Scotland and England and Wales, 1960-2008. British Journal of Psychiatry 2012;200:245-251

pubmed  open access  

Mok PLH, Kapur N, Windfuhr K, Appleby L, Leyland AH, Platt S, Webb RT. Authors’ reply [letter]. British Journal of Psychiatry 2012;201

Molaodi OR, Leyland AH, Ellaway A, Kearns A, Harding S. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012;9:75

pubmed  open access  

Popham F, Gray L, Bambra C. Employment status and the prevalence of poor self rated health: findings from UK individual level repeated cross-sectional data from 1978 to 2004. BMJ Open 2012;2:e001342

pubmed  open access  

Popham F, Skivington K, Benzeval M. Why do those out of work because of sickness or disability have a high mortality risk? Evidence from a Scottish cohort. European Journal of Public Health 2012;23:629-635

pubmed  open access  

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, O’Loughlin AJ, Churches TR, Haines MM, Eades SJ, Leyland AH. Mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: a multilevel data linkage study. BMC Public Health 2012;12:281

pubmed  open access  

Robertson T, Batty GD, Der G, Green MJ, McGlynn LM, McIntyre A, Shiels PG, Benzeval M. Is telomere length socially patterned? Evidence from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. PLoS One 2012;7:e41805

open access  

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on seven year olds and their families DFE-RR220. London, 2012

open access  

Whitley E, Deary IJ, Der G, Batty GD, Benzeval M. Paternal age in relation to offspring intelligence in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 prospective cohort study. PLoS One 2012;7:e52112

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2011

Benzeval M, Green MJ, Leyland AH. Do social inequalities in health widen or converge with age? Longitudinal evidence from three cohorts in the West of Scotland. BMC Public Health 2011;11:947

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Benzeval M. What is the role of income in creating health inequalities? Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies [PhD], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2011.

open access  

Booker C, Harding S, Benzeval M. A systematic review of the effect of retention methods in population-based cohort studies. BMC Public Health 2011;11:249

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Calvin CM, Batty GD, Lowe G D, Deary IJ. Childhood intelligence and midlife inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers: the National Child Development Study (1958) Cohort. Health Psychology 2011;30:710-8

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Calvin CM, Deary IJ, Fenton C, Roberts B, Der G, Leckenby N, Batty GD. Intelligence in youth and all-cause-mortality: systematic review with meta-analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology 2011;40:626-44

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Carroll D, Phillips AC, Der G, Hunt K, Benzeval M. Blood pressure reactions to acute mental stress and future blood pressure status: data from the 12-year follow-up in the West of Scotland Study. Psychosomatic Medicine 2011;73:737-42

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Fairley L, Dundas R, Leyland AH. The influence of both individual and area based socioeconomic status on temporal trends in Caesarean sections in Scotland 1980-2000. BMC Public Health 2011;11:330

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Fuller N, Green MJ, Benzeval M. The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: health in the community - the use of bioimpedance analysis for the measurement of body composition in Wave 5. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Working Paper no. 28, Glasgow, 2011

Ginty A T, Phillips AC, Der G, Deary IJ, Carroll D. Cognitive ability and simple reaction time predict cardiac reactivity in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Psychophysiology 2011;48:1022-7

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Ginty A T, Phillips AC, Der G, Deary IJ, Carroll D. Heart rate reactivity is associated with future cognitive ability and cognitive change in a large community sample. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2011;82:167-74

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Gray C M, Hunt K, Lorimer K, Anderson AS, Benzeval M, Wyke S. Words matter: a qualitative investigation of which weight status terms are acceptable and motivate weight loss when used by health professionals. BMC Public Health 2011;11:513

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Gray L, Lee IM, Sesso H D, Batty GD. Blood pressure in early adulthood, hypertension in middle-age, and future cardiovascular disease mortality: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011;58:2396-403

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Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: fruit and vegetable consumption. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2011.

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Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: adult and child obesity. In: Bromley C, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2011.

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Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: respiratory health and lung function. In: Bromley C, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: 2011.

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Green MJ, Benzeval M. Aging, social class and common mental disorders: Longitudinal evidence from three cohorts in the West of Scotland. Psychological Medicine 2011;41:565-74

pubmed  open access  

Hotchkiss J W, Davies C, Gray L, Bromley C, Capewell S, Leyland AH. Trends in adult cardiovascular disease risk factors and their socio-economic patterning in the Scottish population 1995-2008: cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2011;1:e000176

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Hotchkiss J W, Leyland AH. The relationship between body size and mortality in the linked Scottish Health Surveys: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. International Journal of Obesity 2011;35:838-51

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Levin KA, Torsheim T, Volleberg W, Richter M, Davies CA, Schnohr CW, Due P, Currie C. National income and income inequality, family affluence and life satisfaction among 13 year old boys and girls: a multilevel study in 35 countries. Social Indicators Research 2011;104:179-94

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Lorimer K, Gray CM, Hunt K, Wyke S, Anderson A, Benzeval M. Response to written feedback of clinical data within a longitudinal study: a qualitative study exploring the ethical implications. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011;11:10

pubmed  open access  

Maxwell F, McGlynn LM, Muir HC, Talwar D, Benzeval M, Robertson T, Roxburgh CS, McMillan DC, Horgan PG, Shiels PG. Telomere attrition and decreased Fetuin A levels indicate accelerated biological ageing and are implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 2011;17:5573-81

pubmed  open access  

McCartney G, Mahmood L, Leyland AH, Batty GD, Hunt K. Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries. Tobacco Control 2011;20:166-8

pubmed  open access  

Phillips AC, Der G, Shipton D, Benzeval M. Prospective associations between cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress and change in physical disability in a large community sample. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2011;81:332-7

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Phillips C, Hunt K, Der G, Carroll D. Blunted cardiac reactions to acute psychological stress predict symptoms of depression five years later: evidence from a large community study. Psychophysiology 2011;48:142-8

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Popham F, Boyle P, O'Reilly D, Leyland AH. Selective internal migration: does it explain Glasgow's worsening mortality record?. Health & Place 2011;17:1212-17

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Seaman S, Benzeval M. The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study: health in the community - inverse probability weights for Wave 5. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Working Paper no. 27, Glasgow, 2011

Wills A K, Lawlor DA, Matthews F, Aihie Sayer A, Bakra E, Ben Shlomo Y, Benzeval M, Brunner E, Cooper R, Kivimäki M, Kuh D, Muniz-Terrera G, Hardy R. Lifecourse trajectories of systolic blood pressure using longitudinal data from UK cohorts. PLoS Medicine 2011;8:e1000440

pubmed  open access