From February 2017, information about the work of the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow is available and updated on the University of Glasgow website.

Measuring Health

The health of individuals varies according to socio-economic characteristics reflecting, at least in part, different exposures to factors that influence health.

Since populations comprise groups of individuals, and these groups tend not to be random, e.g. groups defined by geography or on the basis of occupation, there are differences between the health of different populations. As an example, the health of the Scottish population is poorer than that of the UK population as a whole. Understanding such health inequalities plays an important part in improving the health of the population.

Core funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates, the principal focus of the programme is on the health of the Scottish population. The programme seeks to improve the methods used to measure population health and its determinants. 

More specifically, the aims of the programme are:

  • to improve our understanding of the health of the Scottish population, and of the inequalities in health between particular subgroups
  • to consider the importance of different contexts, e.g. school, workplace, area of residence, at different stages in life on subsequent adult health
  • to ensure that the statistical methods needed to address complex public health research problems are developed and disseminated
  • to evaluate the effects of complex interventions, such as Sure Start Local Programmes, an area-based intervention for young children and their families.

The programme has a number of specific projects that capitalise on our expertise with the analysis of routinely collected data, such as death records, Census records and hospital discharge records or cancer registrations, and existing survey data. We also benefit from our location in Scotland which offers access to linked hospital and mortality records covering over 30 years.


The Measuring Health team

Publications

2017

Shenkin SD, Zhang MG, Der G, Mathur S, Mina TH, Reynolds RM. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2017;8:137-148

open access  

2016

Curnock E, Leyland AH, Popham F. The impact on health of employment and welfare transitions for those receiving out-of-work disability benefits in the UK. Social Science & Medicine 2016;162:1–10

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 2: General health and multiple conditions. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Rutherford L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2015: Volume 1 - Main Report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2016.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: Alcohol Consumption. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Rutherford L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2015: Volume 1 - Main Report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2016.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: Smoking. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Rutherford L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2015: Volume 1 - Main Report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2016.

open access  

Gray L. The importance of post hoc approaches for overcoming non-response and attrition bias in population-sampled studies [invited commentary]. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Journal 2016;51:155–157

open access  

Green MJ, Leyland AH, Sweeting H, Benzeval M. Socioeconomic position and early adolescent smoking development: evidence from the British Youth Panel Survey (1994-2008). Tobacco Control 2016;25:203-210

open access  

Popham F. Converting between marginal effect measures from binomial models [letter]. International Journal of Epidemiology Journal 2016:1-3

open access  

Popham F. Re: Lies, damned lies, and health inequality measurements. understanding the value judgments [letter]. Epidemiology 2016;27:e15–e16

open access  

Whitley E, Benzeval M, Popham F. Associations of successful aging with socioeconomic position across the life-course: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of Aging and Health 2016;[epub ahead of print]

open access  

2015

Brown J, Neary J, Katikireddi SV, Thomson H, McQuaid R, Leyland AH, Frank J, Kiran S, Macdonald EB. Protocol for a mixed-methods longitudinal study to identify factors influencing return to work in the over 50s participating in the UK Work Programme: Supporting Older People into Employment (SOPIE). BMJ Open 2015;5:e010525

open access  

Christensen AI, Ekholm O, Gray L, Glümer C, Juel K. Response to Fergusson & Boden (2015): The importance of considering the impacts of survey non-participation. Addiction 2015;110:1514–1515

open access  

Christensen AI, Ekholm O, Gray L, Glumer C, Juel K. What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol, drug and smoking related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey. Addiction 2015;110:1505-12

open access  

Falster MO, Jorm LR, Douglas KA, Blyth FM, Leyland AH. Sociodemographic and health characteristics, rather than primary care supply, are major drivers of geographic variation in preventable hospitalizations in Australia. Medical Care 2015;53:436-45

open access  

Gale CR, Batty GD, Cooper SA, Deary IJ, Der G, McEwen BS, Cavanagh J. Reaction time in adolescence, cumulative allostatic load and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adulthood: the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Psychosomatic Medicine 2015;77:493-505

pubmed  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 2: Alcohol consumption. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 3: Smoking. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 9: Inequalities in health risks. In: Campbell-Jack D, Hinchliffe S, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2014 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2015.

open access  

Hope D, Bates T, Dykiert D, Der G, Deary IJ. More symmetrical children have faster and more consistent choice reaction times. Developmental Psychology 2015;51:524–532

open access  

Hughes J, Kabir Z, Bennett K, Hotchkiss JW, Kee F, Leyland AH, Davies C, Bandosz P, Guzman-Castillo M, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S, Critchley J. Modelling future coronary heart disease mortality to 2030 in the British Isles. PLoS One 2015;10:e0138044

open access  

Leyland AH, Ricciardi W, McKee M, Zeegers Paget D. Health inequalities are unnecessary and unjust [editorial]. Eurohealth 2015;21:2

open access  

Lumme S, Sund R, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Monte Carlo method to estimate the confidence intervals for the concentration index using aggregated population register data. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology 2015;15:82-98

open access  

Pannullo F, Lee D, Waclawski E, Leyland A. Improving spatial nitrogen dioxide prediction using diffusion tubes: A case study in West Central Scotland. Atmospheric Environment 2015;118:227–235

open access  

Phillips AC, Carroll D, Der G. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation. Anxiety Stress and Coping 2015;28:357-71

pubmed  

Robison O, Kearns A, Gray L, Bond L, Henderson M. Mixed tenure communities as a policy instrument for educational outcomes in a deprived urban context?. Urban Research & Practice 2015;9:131-157

open access  

Seaman R, Dundas R, Leyland AH, Mitchell R, Popham F. How much of the difference in life expectancy between Scottish cities does deprivation explain? Calculating and decomposing inequalities across deprivation deciles. BMC Public Health 2015;15:1057

open access  

Seaman R, Popham F, Leyland A. How have trends in lifespan variation changed since 1950? A comparative study of 17 Western European countries. European Journal of Public Health 2015;26:360-2

open access  

2014

Brown D, Allik M, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Carstairs Scores for Scottish postcode sectors, datazones and output areas from the 2011 Census. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional Paper, Glasgow, 2014

open access  

Der G, Everitt BS. A handbook of statistical graphics using SAS ODS. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2014.

Dodds R, Syddall H, Cooper R, Benzeval M, Deary I, Dennison E, Der G, Gale C, Inskip H, Jagger C, Kirkwood T, Lawlor D, Robinson S, Starr J, Steptoe A, Tilling K, Kuh D, Cooper C, Sayer AA. Grip strength across the life course: normative data from twelve British studies. PLoS One 2014;9:e11363

open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. Early-life school, neighborhood, and family influences on adult health: a multilevel cross-classified analysis of the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180:197-207

open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. Multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity: a fundamental critique of the current probabilistic risk factor epidemiology [response to invited commentary]. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180:208-12

open access  

Dundas R, Ouédraogo S, Bond L, Briggs AH, Chalmers J, Gray R, Wood R, Leyland AH. Evaluation of Health in Pregnancy grants in Scotland: a protocol for a natural experiment. BMJ Open 2014;4:e006547

open access  

Gardner M, Bann D, Wiley L, Cooper R, Hardy R, Nitsch D, Martin-Ruiz C, Shiels P, Sayer AA, Barbieri M, Bekaert S, Bischoff C, Brooks-Wilson A, Chen W, Cooper C, Christensen K, Meyer TD, Deary I, Der G, Roux AD, Fitzpatrick A, Hajat A, Halaschek-Wiener J, Harris S, Hunt SC, Jagger C, Jeon HS, Kaplan R, Kimura M, Lansdorp P, Li C, Maeda T, Mangino M, Nawrot TS, Nilsson P, Nordfjall K, Paolisso G, Ren F, Riabowol K, Robertson T, Roos G, Staessen JA, Spector T, Tang N, Unryn B, Harst PVD, Woo J, Xing C, Yadegarfar ME, Park JY, Young N, Kuh D, Zglinicki TV, Ben-Shlomo Y. Gender and telomere length: systematic review and meta-analysis. Experimental Gerontology 2014;51:15–27

open access  

Gorman E, Leyland AH, McCartney G, White IR, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Graham L, Gray L. Assessing the representativeness of population-sampled health surveys through linkage to administrative data on alcohol-related outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180 :941-948

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: Smoking. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: Alcohol consumption. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: General health, mental wellbeing and caring. In: Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S, Sharp C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2013 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2014.

open access  

Green MJ. Latent class analysis was accurate but sensitive in data simulations. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2014;67:1157–1162

open access  

Hagger-Johnson G, Deary IJ, Davies CA, Weiss A, Batty GD. Reaction time and mortality from the major causes of death: the NHANES-III study. PLoS One 2014;9:e82959

open access  

Hotchkiss JW, Davies CA, Dundas R, Hawkins N, Jhund PS, Scholes S, Bajekal M, O’Flaherty M, Critchley J, Leyland AH, Capewell S. Explaining trends in Scottish coronary heart disease mortality between 2000 and 2010: socioeconomic analysis using the IMPACTSEC model. The BMJ 2014;348:g1088

open access  

Jani BD, Cavanagh J, Barry S, Der G, Sattar N, Mair FS. Revisiting the J shaped curve, exploring the association between cardiovascular risk factors and concurrent depressive symptoms in patients with cardiometabolic disease: findings from a large cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014;14:139

open access  

Kearns A, Bailey N, Gannon M, Livingston M, Leyland AH. 'All in it together?' Social cohesion in a divided society: attitudes to income inequality and redistribution in a residential context. Journal of Social Policy 2014;43:453-477

open access  

Levin KA, Dundas R, Miller M, McCartney G. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland. Social Science & Medicine 2014;107:162–170

open access  

Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Hierarchical linear modeling. In: Michalos AC, editor Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014:2861-2863.

Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In: Michalos AC, editor Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014:3367-3368.

Miller C, Magdalina A, Willows RI, Bowman AW, Scott EM, Lee D, Burgess C, Pope L, Pannullo F, Haggarty R. Spatiotemporal statistical modelling of long-term change in river nutrient concentrations in England & Wales. Science of the Total Environment 2014;466-467:914-923

open access  

Ralston K, Dundas R, Leyland AH. A comparison of the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) 2004 with the 2009+1 SIMD: does choice of measure affect the interpretation of inequality in mortality?. International Journal of Health Geographics 2014;13

open access  

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, Eades SJ, Churches TR, O’Loughlin AJ, Leyland AH. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage. Health & Place 2014;28:58–66

open access  

Randall DA, Reinten T, Maher L, Lujic S, Stewart J, Keay L, Leyland AH, Jorm L. Disparities in cataract surgery between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2014;42:629-36

pubmed  

Roberts BA, Deary IJ, Dykiert D, Der G, Batty GD. Reaction time and incident cancer: 25 years of follow-up of study members in the UK health and lifestyle survey. PLoS One 2014;9:e95054

2013

Bailey N, Gannon M, Kearns A, Livingston M, Leyland AH. Living apart, losing sympathy? How neighbourhood context affects attitudes to redistribution and to welfare recipients. Environment and Planning A 2013;45:2154–2175

open access  

Claussen B, Næss Ø, Reime LJ, Leyland AH. Firm downsizing and diagnosis-specific disability pensioning in Norway. BMC Public Health 2013;13:27

open access  

Der G, Everitt BS. Applied medical statistics using SAS. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC, 2013.

Falster MO, Randall DA, Lujica S, Ivers R, Leyland AH, Jorma LR. Disentangling the impacts of geography and Aboriginality on serious road transport injuries in New South Wales. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2013;54:32-8

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH, Benzeval M, Watt GCM. Explaining the social patterning of lung function in adulthood at different ages: the roles of childhood precursors, health behaviours and environmental factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2013;67:905-91

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: Smoking. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: Obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: Long-term conditions. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2012 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2013.

open access  

Gray L, White IR, McCartney G, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Gorman E, Leyland AH. Use of record-linkage to handle non-response and improve alcohol consumption estimates in health survey data: a study protocol. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002647

open access  

Green MJ, Leyland AH, Sweeting H, Benzeval M. Socioeconomic position and adolescent trajectories in smoking, drinking and psychiatric distress. Journal of Adolescent Health 2013;53:202-08

open access  

Hotchkiss JW, Davies CA, Leyland AH. Adiposity has differing associations with incident coronary heart disease and mortality in the Scottish population: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. International Journal of Obesity 2013;37:732-739

pubmed  open access  

Katikireddi SV, Gorman DR, Leyland AH. A comparison of trends in caesarean section rates in former communist (transition) countries and other European countries. European Journal of Public Health 2013;23:381-3

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH. Youth unemployment at times of recession: what does the future hold? [editorial]. European Journal of Public Health 2013;23:527

open access  

Mackay DF, Gray L, Pell JP. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on overweight and obesity: Scotland-wide, cross-sectional study on 40,036 participants. BMC Public Health 2013;348

pubmed  open access  

McCallum AK, Manderbacka K, Arffman M, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Socioeconomic differences in mortality amenable to health care among Finnish adults 1992-2003: 12 year follow up using individual level linked population register data. BMC Health Services Research 2013;13:3

open access  

McCartney G, Leyland AH, Fischbacher C, Whyte B, Walsh D, Stockton D. Commentary: long-term monitoring of health inequalities in Scotland - a response to Frank and Haw. Milbank Quarterly 2013;91:186-191

Mok PLH, Leyland AH, Kapur N, Windfuhr K, Appleby L, Platt S, Webb RT. Why does Scotland have a higher suicide rate than England? An area-level investigation of health and social factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2013;67:63-70

pubmed  open access  

Pannullo F. Associations between air pollution, deprivation and mortality in seven Scottish councils: a multi-level study [MPH], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2013.

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, O’Loughlin A, Eades S, Leyland AH. Disparities in revascularization rates after acute myocardial infarction between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Australia. Circulation 2013;127:811-819

pubmed  

Randall DA, Lujic S, Leyland AH, Jorm LR. Statistical methods to enhance reporting of Aboriginal Australians in routine hospital records using data linkage affect estimates of health disparities. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2013;37:442–449

open access  

Silveirinha de Oliveira E, Aspinall P, Briggs A, Cummins S, Leyland AH, Mitchell R, Roe J, Ward Thompson C. How effective is the Forestry Commission Scotland’s woodland improvement programme ‘Woods In and Around Towns’ (WIAT) at improving psychological wellbeing in deprived urban communities? [protocol]. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003648

open access  

2012

Brown D, Benzeval M, Gayle V, Macintyre S, O'Reilly D, Leyland AH. Childhood residential mobility and health in late adolescence and adulthood: findings from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2012;66:942-950

pubmed  open access  

Brown D, O'Reilly D, Gayle V, Macintyre S, Benzeval M, Leyland AH. Socio-demographic and health characteristics of individuals left behind in deprived and declining areas in Scotland. Health & Place 2012;18:440-444

pubmed  open access  

Cooper C, Frank J, Leyland AH, Hardy R, Lawlor DA, Wareham NJ, Dezateux C, Inskip H. Using cohort studies in lifecourse epidemiology. Public Health 2012;126:190-192

pubmed  open access  

Ellaway A, Benzeval M, Green M, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. 'Getting sicker quicker': does living in a more deprived neighbourhood mean your health deteriorates faster?. Health & Place 2012;18:132-7

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 3: Diet. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 2: children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:62-85.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 2: children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:101-115.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: obesity. In: Rutherford L, Sharp C, Bromley C, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2011 volume 1: adults. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2012:185-205.

Gray L, Merlo J, Mindell J, Hallqvist J, Tafforeau J, O'Reilly D, Regidor E, Næss Ø, Kelleher C, Helakorpi S, Lange C, Leyland AH. International differences in self-reported health measures in 33 major metropolitan areas in Europe. European Journal of Public Health 2012;22:40-7

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Smith GD, McConnachie A, Watt GCM, Hart CL, Upton MN, Macfarlane PW, Batty GD. Parental height in relation to offspring coronary heart disease: examining transgenerational influences on health using the west of Scotland Midspan Family Study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2012;41:1776-85

open access  

Hotchkiss J W, Davies C, Gray L, Bromley C, Capewell S, Leyland AH. Trends in cardiovascular disease biomarkers and their socioeconomic patterning among adults in the Scottish population 1995 to 2009: cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2012;2:e000771

open access  

Jorm LR, Leyland AH, Blyth FM, Elliot RF, Douglas KM, Redman S, on behalf of the APHID investigators . Assessing Preventable Hospitalisation InDicators (APHID): protocol for a data linkage study using cohort study and administrative data. BMJ Open 2012;2:e002344

open access  

Leyland AH. Alcohol, financial crisis and reform: learning from the Russian experience [editorial]. European Journal of Public Health 2012;22:300

pubmed  open access  

Lumme S, Sund R, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Socioeconomic equity in amenable mortality in Finland 1992-2008. Social Science & Medicine 2012;75:905-13

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Mok PL, Kapur N, Windfhur K, Leyland AH, Appleby L, Platt S, Webb RT. Trends in national suicide rates for Scotland and England and Wales, 1960-2008. British Journal of Psychiatry 2012;200:245-251

pubmed  open access  

Mok PLH, Kapur N, Windfuhr K, Appleby L, Leyland AH, Platt S, Webb RT. Authors’ reply [letter]. British Journal of Psychiatry 2012;201

Molaodi OR, Leyland AH, Ellaway A, Kearns A, Harding S. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012;9:75

pubmed  open access  

Randall DA, Jorm LR, Lujic S, O’Loughlin AJ, Churches TR, Haines MM, Eades SJ, Leyland AH. Mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: a multilevel data linkage study. BMC Public Health 2012;12:281

pubmed  open access  

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on seven year olds and their families DFE-RR220. London, 2012

open access  

2011

Benzeval M, Green MJ, Leyland AH. Do social inequalities in health widen or converge with age? Longitudinal evidence from three cohorts in the West of Scotland. BMC Public Health 2011;11:947

pubmed  open access  

Fairley L, Dundas R, Leyland AH. The influence of both individual and area based socioeconomic status on temporal trends in Caesarean sections in Scotland 1980-2000. BMC Public Health 2011;11:330

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Lee IM, Sesso H D, Batty GD. Blood pressure in early adulthood, hypertension in middle-age, and future cardiovascular disease mortality: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011;58:2396-403

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: fruit and vegetable consumption. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2011.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: adult and child obesity. In: Bromley C, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2011.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 8: respiratory health and lung function. In: Bromley C, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2010 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: 2011.

open access  

Hotchkiss J W, Davies C, Gray L, Bromley C, Capewell S, Leyland AH. Trends in adult cardiovascular disease risk factors and their socio-economic patterning in the Scottish population 1995-2008: cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2011;1:e000176

open access  

Hotchkiss J W, Leyland AH. The relationship between body size and mortality in the linked Scottish Health Surveys: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. International Journal of Obesity 2011;35:838-51

pubmed  open access  

Levin KA, Torsheim T, Volleberg W, Richter M, Davies CA, Schnohr CW, Due P, Currie C. National income and income inequality, family affluence and life satisfaction among 13 year old boys and girls: a multilevel study in 35 countries. Social Indicators Research 2011;104:179-94

open access  

McCartney G, Mahmood L, Leyland AH, Batty GD, Hunt K. Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries. Tobacco Control 2011;20:166-8

pubmed  open access  

Popham F, Boyle P, O'Reilly D, Leyland AH. Selective internal migration: does it explain Glasgow's worsening mortality record?. Health & Place 2011;17:1212-17

pubmed  open access  

2010

Brown D, Leyland AH. Scottish mortality rates 2000-2002 by deprivation and small area population mobility. Social Science & Medicine 2010;71:1951-7

pubmed  open access  

Davies CA, Leyland AH. Trends and inequalities in short-term acute myocardial infarction case fatality in Scotland, 1988-2004. Population Health Metrics 2010;8:33

pubmed  open access  

Dundas R, Leyland AH. The social patterning of deaths due to assault in Scotland, 1980-2005: a population based study. AQMeN Applied Quantitative Methods Newsletter 2010;3

Fransson C, Tomasi C, Leyland AH, Wennström J, Berglundh T. Severity and pattern of peri-implantitis-associated bone loss. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2010;37:442-8

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Gray L, Batty GD, Craig P, Stewart C, Whyte B, Findlayson B, Leyland AH. Cohort profile: the Scottish Health Surveys Cohort - linkage of study participants to routinely collected records for mortality, hospital discharge, cancer and offspring birth characteristics in three nationwide studies. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010;39:345-50

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Hart C L, Smith DG, Batty GD. What is the predictive value of established risk factors for total and cardiovascular disease mortality when measured before middle-age? pooled analyses of two prospective cohort studies from Scotland. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation 2010;17:106-112

pubmed  open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: diet. In: Bromley C, Given L, Ormston R, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2009 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2010.

open access  

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: adult obesity. In: Bromley C, Given L, Ormston R, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2009 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2010.

open access  

Jackson A, Davies CA, Leyland AH. Do differences in the administrative structure of populations confound comparisons of geographic health inequalities?. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010;10:74

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Levin KA, Davies CA, Douglas G, Pitts NB. Urban-rural differences in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland. Social Science & Medicine 2010;71:2020-7

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Leyland AH, Dundas R. The social patterning of deaths due to assault in Scotland, 1980-2005: population based study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2010;64:432-9

pubmed  open access  

Leyland AH. Methodological challenges in the evaluation of community interventions. European Journal of Public Health 2010;20:242-3

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Leyland AH. No quick fix: understanding the difference between fixed and random effect models [editorial]. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2010;64:1027-8

pubmed  

Næss Ø, Leyland AH. Analysing the effect of area of residence over the life course in multilevel epidemiology. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2010;38:119-26

pubmed  open access  

Popham F, Boyle P, O'Reilly D, Leyland AH. Exploring the impact of selective migration on the deprivation-mortality gap within Greater Glasgow. February 2010. Glasgow, 2010

open access  

Stewart CH. Multilevel modelling of event history data: comparing methods appropriate for large datasets [PhD], MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow 2010.

open access  

Tarkiainen L, Martikainen P, Laaksonen M, Leyland AH. Comparing the effects of neighbourhood characteristics on all-cause mortality using two hierarchical areal units in the capital region of Helsinki. Health & Place 2010;16:409-12

pubmed  

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on five year olds and their families DFE-RR067. London, 2010

open access  

2009

Batty GD, Shipley M, Dundas R, Macintyre S, Der G, Mortensen L, Deary IJ. Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study. European Heart Journal 2009;30:1903-9

pubmed  open access  

Belsky J, Leyland AH, Barnes J, Melhuish E.. Sure Start in England. The Lancet 2009;373ID - 876:381

open access  

Bond L, Leyland AH, Macintyre S, Wight D. Evaluation of a youth development programme demonstrates the need for the randomised roll-out of community interventions [rapid response] ID - 870. BMJ 2009:July 16th

open access  

Brown D, Leyland AH. Population mobility, deprivation and self-reported limiting long-term illness in small areas across Scotland. Health & Place 2009;15:37-44

pubmed  open access  

Davies CA, Dundas R, Leyland AH. Increasing socioeconomic inequalities in first acute myocardial infarction in Scotland, 1990-92 and 2000-2. BMC Public Health 2009;9:134

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Gray L, Leyland AH. A multilevel analysis of diet and socio-economic status in Scotland: investigating the 'Glasgow effect'. Public Health Nutrition 2009;12:1351-8

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Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 4: smoking. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2008 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2009:101-136.

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Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 5: fruit and vegetable consumption. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2008 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2009:137-156.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Chapter 7: obesity. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P, Given L, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2008 volume 1: main report. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government Health Directorate, 2009:191-228.

Gray L, Leyland AH. Is the 'Glasgow effect' of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status? A multilevel analysis. BMC Public Health 2009;9:245

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Levin KA, Davies CA, Topping GVA, Assaf AV, Pitts NB. Inequalities in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland, 1993-2003. European Journal of Public Health 2009;19:337-42

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Leyland AH, Lynch JW. Why is mortality from coronary heart disease in young adults no longer falling? . BMJ 2009;339:b5215

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Leyland AH, Næss Ø. The effect of area of residence over the life course on subsequent mortality. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A 2009;172:555-78.

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Manderbacka K, Arffman M, Leyland AH, McCallum A, Keskimäki I. Change and persistence in health care inequalities: access to elective surgery in Finland in 1992-2003. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2009;37:131-8

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2008

Batty GD, Kivimäki M, Gray L, Smith DG, Marmot MG, Shipley MJ. Cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer mortality: testing uncertain associations using extended follow-up of the original Whitehall study. Annals of Oncology 2008;19:996-1002

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Bloor M, Gannon M, Hay G, Jackson G, Leyland AH, McKeganey N. Contribution of problem drug users' deaths to excess mortality in Scotland: secondary analysis of cohort study. BMJ 2008;337:a478

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Gray L, Leyland AH. Overweight status and psychological wellbeing in adolescent boys and girls: a multilevel analysis. European Journal of Public Health 2008;18:616-621

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Gray L. Comparisons of health-related behaviours and health measures between Greater Glasgow with other regional areas of Europe. Glasgow, 2008

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Lumme S, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. Multilevel modeling of regional variation in equity in health care. Medical Care 2008;46:976-983

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Melhuish E, Belsky J, Leyland AH, Barnes J, the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team . Effects of fully-established Sure Start Local Programmes on 3 year old children and their families living in England: a quasi-experimental observational study. The Lancet 2008;372:1641-47

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Næss Ø, Smith DG, Claussen B, Leyland AH. Life course influence of residential area on cause specific mortality. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2008;62:29-34

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The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on three year olds and their families NESS/2008/FR/027. London, 2008

2007

Gray L, Harding S, Reid A. Evidence of divergence with duration of residence in circulatory disease mortality in migrants to Australia. European Journal of Public Health 2007;17:550-554

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Gray L. Comparisons of health-related behaviours and health measures between Glasgow and the rest of Scotland. Glasgow, 2007

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Leyland AH, Dundas R, McLoone P, Boddy FA. Inequalities in mortality in Scotland 1981-2001. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional paper no. 16, Glasgow, 2007

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Leyland AH, Dundas R, McLoone P, Boddy FA. Cause-specific inequalities in mortality in Scotland: two decades of change - a population-based study. BMC Public Health 2007;7:172

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Leyland AH, Næss Ø. Multilevel modelling of the longitudinal influence of neighbourhoods on health [e-letter]. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Online 2007:18 January

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Manda SOM, Leyland AH. An empirical comparison of maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation methods for multivariate disease mapping. South African Statistical Journal 2007;41:1-21

Melhuish E, Belsky J, Anning A, Ball M, Barnes J, Romaniuk H, Leyland AH, NESS Research Team . Variation in community intervention programmes and consequences for children and families: the example of Sure Start Local Programmes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2007;48:543-551

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Næss Ø, Piro F N, Nafstad P, Smith DG, Leyland AH. Air pollution, social deprivation, and mortality: a multilevel cohort study. Epidemiology 2007;18:686-694

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Tomasi C, Leyland AH, Wennstrom JL. Factors influencing the outcome of non-surgical periodontal treatment: a multilevel approach. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2007;34:682-690

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2006

Belsky J, Melhuish E, Barnes J, Leyland AH, Romaniuk H, National Evaluation of Sure Start research team. Effects of Sure Start local programmes on children and families: early findings from a quasi-experimental, cross sectional study. BMJ 2006;332:1476-1748

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Chaix B, Leyland AH, Sabel CE, Chauvin P, Rastam L, Kristersson H, Merlo J. Spatial clustering of mental disorders and associated characteristics of the neighbourhood context in Malmo, Sweden, in 2001. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2006;60:427-435

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Dundas R, Leyland AH, Macintyre S, Leon DA. Does the primary school attended influence self-reported health or its risk factors in later life? Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006;35:458-465

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Fairley L, Leyland AH. Social class inequalities in perinatal outcomes: Scotland 1980-2000. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2006;60:31-36

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Kajantie M, Manderbacka K, McCallum A, Notkola I-L, Arffman M, Forssas E, Karvonen S, Kortteinen M, Leyland AH, Keskimäki I. How to carry out register-based health services research in Finland? Compiling complex study data in the REDD project. Helsinki, 2006

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Levin K A, Leyland AH. A comparison of health inequalities in urban and rural Scotland. Social Science & Medicine 2006;62:1457-1464

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Levin K A, Leyland AH. Urban-rural inequalities in ischemic heart disease in Scotland, 1981-1999. American Journal of Public Health 2006;96:145-151

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Leyland AH. Homicides involving knives and other sharp objects in Scotland, 1981-2003. Journal of Public Health 2006;28:145-147

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2005

Barnes J, Belsky J, Broomfield KA, Dave S, Frost M, Melhuish E, National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team, (including Leyland AH). Disadvantaged but different: variation among deprived communities in relation to child and family well-being. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2005;46:952-962

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Fairley L. Changing patterns of inequality in birthweight and its determinants: a population-based study, Scotland 1980-2000. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2005;19:342-350

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Gray L, Leyland AH. General and psychosocial health. In: Bromley S, Shelton N, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2003 volume 3: children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Executive Department of Health, 2005:129-168.

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Gray L, Leyland AH. General health, psychosocial health and use of services. In: Bromley C, Sproston K, Shelton N, editors The Scottish Health Survey 2003 volume 2: adults. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2005:191-254.

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Levin K A, Leyland AH. Urban/rural inequalities in suicide in Scotland, 1981-1999. Social Science & Medicine 2005;60:2877-2890

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Leyland AH, Davies CA. Empirical Bayes methods for disease mapping. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 2005;14:17-34

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Leyland AH. Assessing the impact of mobility on health: implications for life course epidemiology. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:90-91

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Leyland AH. Socioeconomic gradients in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Scotland: the roles of composition and context. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:799-803

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Næss Ø, Leyland AH , Davey-Smith G, Claussen B. Contextual effect on mortality of neighbourhood level education explained by earlier life deprivation. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:1058-59

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The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . Early impacts of Sure Start Local Programmes on children and families; report of the cross-sectional study of 9-and 36-month old children and their families NESS/2005/FR/013. Nottingham, 2005

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Tunstill J, Allnock D, Akhurst S, Garbers C, NESS research team, (including Leyland A. H.). Sure Start Local Programmes: Implications of case study data from the National Evaluation of Sure Start. Children & Society 2005;19:158-171

2004

Davies CA, Leyland AH. Spatial patterns of cancer mortality in Europe. In: Kirch W, editor Public health in Europe: 10 years EUPHA. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2004:227-243.

Leyland AH. Increasing inequalities in premature mortality in Great Britain. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2004;58:296-302

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McLoone P. Carstairs scores for Scottish postcode sectors from the 2001 Census. Glasgow, 2004

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . The national evaluation of Sure Start Local Programmes in England. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2004;9:2-8

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West P, Sweeting H, Leyland AH. School effects on pupils' health behaviours: evidence in support of the health promoting school. Research Papers in Education 2004;19:261-291

2003

Gravelle H, Sutton M, Morris S, Windmeijer F, Leyland AH, Dibben C, Muirhead M. A model of supply and demand influences on the use of health care: implications for deriving a 'needs-based' capitation formula. Health Economics 2003;12:985-1004

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Hetemaa T, Keskimäki I, Manderbacka K, Leyland AH, Koskinen S. How did the recent increased supply of coronary operations in Finland affect socio-economic and gender equity in their use?. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2003;57:178-185

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Levin K A. Urban-rural differences in self reported limiting long term illness in Scotland. Journal of Public Health Medicine 2003;25:288-294

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Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Multilevel modelling and public health policy. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2003;31:267-274

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McLoone P. Increasing mortality among adults in Scotland 1981 to 1999. European Journal of Public Health 2003;13:230-234

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . Profiles of rounds 1 to 4 Sure Start Local Programme areas and a sample of round 5, to-be-Sure Start local programme areas. Nottingham, 2003

open access  

2002

Sutton M, Gravelle H, Morris S, Leyland AH, Windmeijer F, Dibben C, Muirhead M. Allocation of resources to English areas: individual and small area determinants of morbidity and use of healthcare resources. Edinburgh, 2002

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) Research Team (including Leyland AH) . Asking the right questions: the National Evaluation of Sure Start. Interplay 2002;1:26-31

Westert G, Lagoe R, Keskimäki I, Leyland AH, Murphy M. An international study of hospital readmissions and related utilization in Europe and the USA. Health Policy 2002;61:269-278

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2001

Keskimäki I, Karvonen S, Sund R, Leyland AH. Monitasomallien käyttö terveystutkimuksessa [Multilevel modelling in health research]. Sosiäälilaaketieteellinen Aikakauslehti [Journal of Social Medicine] 2001;38:327-335

Leyland AH, Goldstein H , (eds). Multilevel modelling of health statistics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Morrison JM, Carroll L, Twaddle SE, Cameron IT, Grimshaw JM, Leyland AH, Baillie HM, Watt GCM. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate guidelines for the management of infertility across the primary-secondary interface. BMJ 2001;322:1282-1284

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2000

Leyland AH, Langford I H, Rasbash J, Goldstein H. Multivariate spatial models for event data. Statistics in Medicine 2000;19:2469-2478

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Leyland AH, McLeod A. Mortality in England and Wales, 1979-1992, an introduction to Multilevel Modelling using MLwiN. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional Paper no. 1, Glasgow, 2000

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1999

Langford IH, Leyland AH, Rasbash J, Goldstein H. Multilevel modelling of the geographical distributions of rare diseases. Applied Statistics 1999;48:253-268

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