From February 2017, information about the work of the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow is available and updated on the University of Glasgow website.

WinBUGS Code

Many of our projects involve model estimation using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implemented in WinBUGS. This page contains the code for some of these models.

A model to estimate the attributable risk fractions for mortality related to drug use in Scotland and England, the excess mortality in Scotland over England and the proportion of this excess attributable to the higher levels of drug use. Code
A cross-classified model of individual mortality estimating the contextual effect of area of residence at each of four time points. Code
A hierarchical spatial model of individual mortality examining the effects of air pollution and area deprivation following adjustment for age individual deprivation. Code



Levin KA, Davies CA, Douglas G, Pitts NB. Urban-rural differences in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland. Social Science & Medicine 2010;71:2020-7


Næss Ø, Leyland AH. Analysing the effect of area of residence over the life course in multilevel epidemiology. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2010;38:119-26

pubmed  open access  


Levin KA, Davies CA, Topping GVA, Assaf AV, Pitts NB. Inequalities in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland, 1993-2003. European Journal of Public Health 2009;19:337-42


Leyland AH, Næss Ø. The effect of area of residence over the life course on subsequent mortality. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A 2009;172:555-78.

open access  


Bloor M, Gannon M, Hay G, Jackson G, Leyland AH, McKeganey N. Contribution of problem drug users' deaths to excess mortality in Scotland: secondary analysis of cohort study. BMJ 2008;337:a478

open access  

Næss Ø, Smith DG, Claussen B, Leyland AH. Life course influence of residential area on cause specific mortality. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2008;62:29-34

pubmed  open access  


Næss Ø, Piro F N, Nafstad P, Smith DG, Leyland AH. Air pollution, social deprivation, and mortality: a multilevel cohort study. Epidemiology 2007;18:686-694

pubmed  open access  

Project Staff