Multilevel Modelling for Public Health
Multilevel modelling is a recognised statistical technique for the analysis of hierarchical data. Despite this, it is still seen as an 'advanced' statistical method and not taught routinely alongside regression modelling. A number of software packages are now dedicated to multilevel modelling or have some capability. However, as its popularity grows there remain gaps in our knowledge regarding the theory and application of multilevel modelling. Together with Peter Groenewegen from Nivel we train researchers in the use of multilevel modelling through week long courses Health in Context: A course in Multilevel Modelling in Public Health and Health Service Research.
Hotchkiss J W, Davies C, Gray L, Bromley C, Capewell S, Leyland AH. Trends in cardiovascular disease biomarkers and their socioeconomic patterning among adults in the Scottish population 1995 to 2009: cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2012;2:e000771open access
Hotchkiss J W, Davies C, Gray L, Bromley C, Capewell S, Leyland AH. Trends in adult cardiovascular disease risk factors and their socio-economic patterning in the Scottish population 1995-2008: cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open 2011;1:e000176open access
Hotchkiss J W, Leyland AH. The relationship between body size and mortality in the linked Scottish Health Surveys: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. International Journal of Obesity 2011;35:838-51pubmed open access
Leyland AH. No quick fix: understanding the difference between fixed and random effect models [editorial]. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2010;64:1027-8pubmed
Næss Ø, Leyland AH. Analysing the effect of area of residence over the life course in multilevel epidemiology. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2010;38:119-26pubmed open access
Leyland AH, Næss Ø. The effect of area of residence over the life course on subsequent mortality. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A 2009;172:555-78.open access
Leyland AH, Næss Ø. Multilevel modelling of the longitudinal influence of neighbourhoods on health [e-letter]. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Online 2007:18 Januaryopen access
Leyland AH. Assessing the impact of mobility on health: implications for life course epidemiology. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005;59:90-91pubmed
Leyland AH, Groenewegen PP. Multilevel modelling and public health policy. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2003;31:267-274pubmed
Keskimäki I, Karvonen S, Sund R, Leyland AH. Monitasomallien käyttö terveystutkimuksessa [Multilevel modelling in health research]. Sosiäälilaaketieteellinen Aikakauslehti [Journal of Social Medicine] 2001;38:327-335
Leyland AH, Goldstein H , (eds). Multilevel modelling of health statistics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
Leyland AH, McLeod A. Mortality in England and Wales, 1979-1992, an introduction to Multilevel Modelling using MLwiN. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional Paper no. 1, Glasgow, 2000open access
- cross-classified model A multilevel model in which units at one level lie within two non-nested classifications. An example would be individuals who live in neighbourhoods and attend hospitals, with there being no strict nesting of neighbourhoods within hospitals or of hospitals within neighbourhoods.
- Multilevel modelling A form of regression analysis designed to estimate effects when data are clustered within units at higher levels e.g. survey respondents within households or areas, patients within hospitals etc.
- multiple membership model A multilevel model in which units at one level may lie within more than one unit at a higher level. An example would be individuals receiving treatment from more than one doctor.