Neighbourhoods and Communities
We will work to unpack the ‘black box of places’ by advancing understanding of how aspects of the local social and physical environment interact to influence health and the ability to lead a healthy life. Our work will be organised in three themes, focusing on (1) understanding impacts of regeneration on health and wellbeing, (2) examining contextual influences on children and young people’s health, behaviour and development, and (3) bringing about system change to improve health in communities. Through these themes, we will explore the interdependencies among social, environmental and biological influences on health, their coalescence in particular localities, and identify potential mechanisms to improve the health of neighbourhoods and communities.
Interest in neighbourhood-level influences on health has burgeoned with research showing that although ‘who you are’ explains much geographical variation in health outcomes, there is also an effect of ‘where you are’. Neighbourhoods are also an important site for health improvement efforts, and population health monitoring. Although policymakers recognise that that people’s health, wellbeing and resilience are affected by the quality of their environments, including the availability of green and open spaces, transport, housing, access to good quality food and social isolation, finding levers to bring about health improvement by changing neighbourhoods remains a significant research challenge.
Aims, Objectives and overarching research questions
Our aim over the next five years is to further understanding of the ways in which aspects of neighbourhood and community interact to influence health and the ability to lead a healthy life.
We will (1) examine how changes over time to the local social and physical environment matter for health; (2) add a new focus on children and young people, and study how the local social and physical environment influences their health and development; (3) apply the knowledge gained to develop and evaluate interventions in collaboration with policy, practice and community stakeholders.
Our longer term ambition is to further understandings of neighbourhoods as complex systems through which social and physical environments act in synergy to influence health, and to use these understandings as the basis for developing interventions to improve health through neighbourhood change.
We will build on existing strengths within the programme, with an emphasis on understanding how neighbourhood and community change influence health and the ability to lead a healthy life. In theme 1: understanding the impacts of regeneration on health and wellbeing, we will build on our existing GoWell studies and collaborations. In theme 2: contextual influences on children and young people, we will concentrate on using the Growing Up in Scotland (GUS) longitudinal study, supplemented by new primary data collection, to investigate the role of local social and physical environment in influencing physical activity, and developmental and behavioural outcomes. In theme 3: bringing about system change to improve health in communities, we will focus on interventions informed both by our research on mechanisms and by engagement with local stakeholders. We will also capitalise on our existing data to explore neighbourhood influences on healthy ageing. Across the three themes, we will concentrate on health outcomes and behaviours that are major public health burdens now and projected into the future (e.g. mental health, obesity, physical activity, alcohol and smoking).
Hayball F, Kirk A, McCrorie P, Gibson A, Ellaway A. Exploring children’s perceptions of their local environment in relation to time spent outside. Children & Society [in press]
McCrorie PRW, Perez A, Ellaway A. The validity of the Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire in 12-13 year old Scottish Adolescents. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine 2017;2open access
Clark J, Cleland C, Kearns Ade. Spatial scale, time and process in mega-events: the complexity of host community perspectives on neighbourhood change. Cities 2016;53:87–97open access
Cleland C, Kearns A, Tannahill , Ellaway A. Home truths: are housing-related events more important for residents’ health compared with other life events?. Housing Studies 2016;31:495–518open access
Cleland C, Kearns A, Tannahill C, Ellaway A. The impact of life events on adult physical and mental health and well being: longitudinal analysis using the GoWell Health and Well-being Survey. BMC Research Notes 2016;9:470open access
Ellaway A, Lamb KE, Ferguson NS, Ogilvie D. Associations between access to recreational physical activity facilities and body mass index in Scottish adults. BMC Public Health 2016;16:1-9open access
Ellaway A, Macdonald L, Kearns A. Are housing tenure and car access still associated with health? A repeat cross-sectional study of UK adults over a 13 year period. BMJ Open 2016;6:e012268open access
Macdonald L, McCrorie P, Nicholls N, Ellaway A. Walkability around primary schools and area deprivation across Scotland. BMC Public Health 2016;16:328open access
Ram B, Rudnicka AR, Hudda MT, Nightingale CM, Kapetanakis VV, Ellaway A, Cooper AR, Page A, Lewis D, Cummins S, Giles-Corti B, Whincup PH, Cook DG, Owen CG. Cohort profile: examining neighbourhood activities in built living environments in London - the enable London - Olympic park cohort. BMJ Open 2016;6:e012643open access
Skivington K, Lifshen M, Mustard C. Implementing a collaborative return-to-work program: lessons from a qualitative study in a large Canadian healthcare organization. Work 2016;55:613-624open access
Skivington K, Vojt G, Thomson H, Fenton C, Campbell M, Sweeting H. Systematic literature review of interventions to improve health, happiness and wellbeing in the transition from adolescence to adulthood [systematic review protocol]. MRC/CSO Public and Health Sciences Unit, 2016open access
Van Eerd D, Munhall C, Irvin E, Rempel D, Brewer S, van der Beek AJ, Dennerlein JT, Tullar J, Skivington K, Pinion C, Amick B. Effectiveness of workplace interventions in the prevention of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms: an update of the evidence. Occupational & Environmental Medicine 2016;73:62-70pubmed
Vojt G, Thomson H, Campbell M, Fenton C, Sweeting H, McQueen J, Skivington K. Health, happiness and wellbeing for adolescents transitioning to adulthood: a systematic review of individual-level interventions for adolescents from vulnerable groups. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Occasional paper no. 26, Glasgow, 2016pubmed
Ball K, Lamb KE, Costa C, Cutumisu N, Ellaway A, Kamphuis CBM, Mentz G, Pearce J, Santana P, Santos R, Schulz AJ, Spence JC, Thornton LE, van Lenthe FJ, Zenk SN. Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption: a seven countries comparison. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2015;12:68open access
Barry SJE, Marryat L, Thompson L, Ellaway A, White J, McClung M, Wilson P. Mapping area variability in social and behavioural difficulties among Glasgow pre-schoolers: linkage of a survey of pre-school staff with routine monitoring data. Child: care health and development 2015;41:853–864open access
Cleland C, Stewart S, Clark J, Kearns A, Ellaway A. GoWell East: studying change in Glasgow’s East End - Headline indicators report for wave 2 (2015) in comparison with wave 1 (2012). Glasgow, 2015open access
Curl A, Kearns A., Tannahill C, Egan M, Ellaway A. Physical and mental health outcomes following housing improvements: evidence from the GoWell study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2015;69:12-19open access
Kearns A, Whitley E, Tannahill C, Ellaway A. Loneliness, social relations and health and wellbeing in deprived communities. Psychology, Health & Medicine 2015; 20:332–344open access
Kearns A, Whitley E, Tannahill C, Ellaway A. Lonesome town? Is loneliness associated with the residential environment, including housing and neighbourhood factors?. Journal of Community Psychology 2015;43:849–867open access
Levin K, Nicholls N, Macdonald S, Dundas R, Douglas GV. Geographic and socioeconomic variations in adolescent toothbrushing: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland. Journal of Public Health 2015;37:107-15open access
McCrorie P, Duncan E, Granat M, Stansfield B. Seasonal variation in the distribution of daily stepping in 11-13 year old school children. International Journal of Exercise Science 2015;8open access
Newbold KB, Watson S, Ellaway A. Emigration of Scottish steelworkers to Canada: impacts on social networks. Population, Space and Place 2015;21:720–734open access
Clark J, Kearns A, Ellaway A. GoWell East study of physical activity in secondary school pupils in Glasgow baseline survey: headline indicators report for S1 pupils, 2013. Glasgow, 2014open access
Cleland CL, Hunter RF, Kee F, Cupples ME, Sallis JF, Tully MA. Validity of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in assessing levels and change in moderate-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour. BMC Public Health 2014;14:1255
Ellaway A, MacDonald S, Macdonald L, Nicholls N. Context briefing 3: changes over time in the provision of amenities and facilities. Glasgow, 2014open access
Ellaway A. The impact of the local social and physical local environment on wellbeing. In: Burton E, Cooper R, editors Wellbeing and the environment Vol 2. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.
Estrade M, Dick S, Crawford F, Jepson R, Ellaway A, McNeill G. A qualitative study of independent fast food vendors near secondary schools in disadvantaged Scottish neighbourhoods. BMC Public Health 2014;14:793open access
Jones R, Heim D, Hunter S, Ellaway A. The relative influence of neighbourhood incivilities, cognitive social capital, club membership and individual characteristics on positive mental health. Health & Place 2014;28:187-193open access
McBrearty D, McCrorie P, Granat M, Duncan E, Stansfield B. Objective assessment of intensity categorization of the previous day physical activity recall questionnaire in 11–13 year old children. Physiological Measurement 2014;35:2329
Mccrorie PRW, Fenton C, Ellaway A. Combining GPS, GIS, and accelerometry to explore the physical activity and environment relationship in children and young people: a review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014;11:93open access
Mckenna J, Skivington K. Religiously Aggravated Offending in Scotland 2013-14. Edinburgh, Scottish Government Social Research, 2014open access
Oliver M, Badland H, Mavoa S, Witten K, Kearns R, Ellaway A, Hinckson E, Mackay L, Schluter PJ. Environmental and socio-demographic associates of children's active transport to school: a cross-sectional investigation from the URBAN Study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014;11:70open access
Owen CG, Ram B, Kapetanakis V, Rudnicka AR, Ellaway A, Cooper AR, Page A, Lewis D, Cummins S, Giles-Corti B, Cook DG, Whincup PH. Will moving into social and affordable housing in East Village, London, UK, increase family physical activity levels? Evaluation of a natural experiment. The Lancet 2014;384:S59open access
Skivington K, Mckenna J. Charges reported under the Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland) Act 2012 in 2013-14. Edinburgh, Scottish Government Social Research, 2014open access
Trevisan F. Scottish disability organizations and online media: a path to empowerment or ‘business as usual’?. Disability Studies Quarterly 2014;34:3open access
Ellaway A, Emslie C. Connecting gender, space and place: are there gender differences in the relationships between the social environment and health-related behaviours?. In: Stock C, Ellaway A, editors Neighbourhood structure and health promotion. New York: Springer, 2013:335-346.open access
Ellaway A, Ferguson N, Lamb K, Ogilvie D. Access to health promoting facilities and amenities. In: Stock C, Ellaway A, editors Neighbourhood structure and health promotion. New York: Springer, 2013:117-126.open access
Ellaway A, Macdonald L, Forsyth A. Exploring the alcogenic environment across Glasgow City: an audit of alcohol off sales - SPHSU Working Paper No. 31. Glasgow, 2013
Ferguson N, Lamb K, Ogilvie D, Wang Y, Ellaway A. Access to recreational physical activities by car and bus: an assessment of socio-spatial inequalities in mainland Scotland. PLoS One 2013;8:e55638open access
Forsyth A, Ellaway A, Davidson N. How might the Alcohol Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) impact upon local off-sales shops and the communities which they serve?. Alcohol and Alcoholism 2013;49:96-102open access
Forsyth AJM, Davidson NW, Ellaway A. 'I can spot them a mile off' Community shopkeepers’ experience of alcohol test-purchasing. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy 2013;21:221-224open access
Macdonald L, Kearns A, Ellaway A. Do residents' perceptions of being well-placed and objective presence of local amenities match? A case study in West Central Scotland, UK. BMC Public Health 2013;13:454open access
Macintyre S, Ellaway A. Place. In: Gabe J, Bury M, Elston MA, editors Key concepts in medical sociology. 2nd ed. London: Sage, 2013.
Stock C, Ellaway A, editors. Neighbourhood structure and health promotion. New York: Springer, 2013.
Stock C, Ellaway A. Neighbourhood structure and health promotion: an introduction. In: Stock C, Ellaway A, editors Neighbourhood structure and health promotion. New York: Springer, 2013.
Young R, Macdonald L, Ellaway A. Associations between proximity and density of local alcohol outlets and alcohol use among Scottish adolescents. Health & Place 2013;19:124-130pubmed open access
Ball K, Lamb K, Travaglini N, Ellaway A. Street connectivity and obesity in Glasgow, Scotland: impact of age, sex and socioeconomic position. Health & Place 2012;18:1307-1313open access
Birkin P, Crawford F, Mackison D, Mooney J, Ellaway A. Exploring the nutritional quality of ‘Out of School’ foods popular with school pupils. Environmental Health Scotland 2012;24:5-12open access
Church A, Ellaway A, Mitchell R, Moore N, Ravenscroft N. Connecting health, health-behaviours and place through the work of community gardening . Connected Communities, 2012
Crawford F, Ellaway A, Mackison D, Mooney J. ‘Is eating out of school a healthy option for secondary pupils?’ A feasibility study to explore the nutritional quality of ‘out of school’ foods popular with school pupils. Glasgow, 2012open access
Crawford F, Research Steering Group including Anne Ellaway . Exploring the nutritional quality of 'out of school' foods popular with schoolchildren: GCPH Briefing Paper 35 - Findings Series. Glasgow, 2012open access
Davidson N, Forsyth A, Ellaway A. Shop servers experience of alcohol-related issues and interventions in socially contrasting areas. London, 2012open access
Ellaway A, Benzeval M, Green M, Leyland AH, Macintyre S. 'Getting sicker quicker': does living in a more deprived neighbourhood mean your health deteriorates faster?. Health & Place 2012;18:132-7pubmed open access
Ellaway A, Macdonald L, Lamb K, Thornton L, Day P, Pearce J. Do obesity-promoting food environments cluster around socially disadvantaged schools in Glasgow, Scotland?. Health & Place 2012;18:1335-40pubmed open access
Karvonen S, Young R, West P, Rahkonen O. Value orientations among late modern youth: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Youth Studies 2012;15:33-52
Kelly T, McCafferty E, Metcalfe J, Petrie G, van Beinum M, Young R. Evaluating the Glasgow adolescent self-harm service: a seven-year retrospective investigation: Executive Summary. Scottish Executive Health Department, Chief Scientist's Office, Edinburgh, 2012open access
Lamb KE, Ogilvie D, Ferguson N, Murray J, Yang Wang Y, Ellaway A. Sociospatial distribution of access to facilities for moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity in Scotland by different modes of transport. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012;9:55pubmed open access
Macintyre S. Evidence in the development of health policy. Public Health 2012;126:217-219pubmed open access
Molaodi OR, Leyland AH, Ellaway A, Kearns A, Harding S. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012;9:75pubmed open access
Osei-Assibey G, Dick S, Macdiarmid JI, Semple S, Reill J, Ellaway A, Cowie H, McNeill G. The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review. BMJ Open 2012;2:e001538open access
Thornton LE, Pearce JR, Macdonald L, Lamb KE, Ellaway A. Does the choice of neighbourhood supermarket access measure influence associations with individual-level fruit and vegetable consumption? A case study from Glasgow. International Journal of Health Geographics 2012;11:29pubmed open access
Young R, Sweeting H, West P. Associations between DSM-IV diagnosis, psychiatric symptoms and morning cortisol levels in a community sample of adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2012;47:723-733pubmed open access
Young R. Can Neds (or Chavs) be non-delinquent, educated or even middle class? Contrasting empirical findings with cultural stereotypes. Sociology 2012;46:1140-1160open access
Hunt K, Sweeting H, Sargent J, Lewars H, Young R, West P. Is there an association between seeing incidents of alcohol or drug use in films and young Scottish adults' own alcohol or drug use? A cross sectional study. BMC Public Health 2011;11:259pubmed open access
Macdonald L, Ellaway A, Ball K, Macintyre S. Is proximity to a food retail store associated with diet and BMI in Glasgow, Scotland?. BMC Public Health 2011;11:464pubmed open access
McArdle P, Young R, Quibell T, Moseley M, Johnson R, Le Couteur A. Early intervention for at risk children: three year follow up. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2011;20:111-20pubmed open access
Ogilvie D, Lamb K, Ferguson N, Ellaway A. Recreational physical activity facilities within walking and cycling distance: sociospatial patterning of access in Scotland . Health & Place 2011;17:1015-22pubmed
Shareck M, Ellaway A. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures. BMC Public Health 2011;11:930pubmed open access
Sweeting H, West P, Young R, Kelly S. Dimensions of adolescent subjective social status within the school community: description and correlates. Journal of Adolescence 2011;34:493-504pubmed open access
Young R, Lennie S, Minnis H. Children’s perceptions of parental emotional neglect and psychopathology . Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2011;52:889-97pubmed open access
Young R, McCafferty E, Metcalfe J, van Beinum MA. Evaluating the Glasgow adolescent self-harm service: a seven-year retrospective investigation: Final Report. Glasgow, 2011
Young R, McDonald-Smith L. Lisbeth Salander and the ‘Truth’ about Goths. In: Rosenberg R, editor The psychology of the girl with the dragon tattoo. Dallas: Benbella Books, 2011:9-29.
Young R, Riordan V, Stark C. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances and risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric services use: a longitudinal study of young people. BMC Public Health 2011;11:875pubmed open access