Twenty-07 Locality Study
The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, Health in the Community, has a locality component, which involved 1,500 residents at the start of the study in two socially contrasting areas in Glasgow City. One, in the north west of the City, has better than average health and is relatively socially advantaged in terms of the built environment, local amenities and population characteristics; the other, in the south west of the City, has poorer than average health and is relatively socially disadvantaged. For some of the issues we examined, each of these localities was further divided into two neighbourhoods to provide more finely detailed contexts.
We have used a number of approaches to study these localities:
face-to-face interviews (on three occasions to date: 1987, 1992 and 2001) and a postal questionnaire (in 1997)
direct observation by independent researchers
information obtained from local service providers and planners.
A wide range of data has been collected from respondents about their day to day lives, including a range of structured questions on how people perceive their housing and local environment, as well as an extensive suite of self reported and directly measured health and well being indicators.
We have found differences in mental and physical health, and in a range of health related behaviours, between residents in these two localities even after taking into account personal and household characteristics such as age, gender, income and social class. We have also found differences in access to resources such as public transport, facilities for sport and exercise, and health services. Residents report differences in the quality of their local environment and levels of social capital and cohesion.
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Adamson J, Ebrahim S, Hunt K. The psychosocial versus material hypothesis to explain observed inequality in disability among older adults: data from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2006;60:974-980pubmed open access
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Ellaway A, Macintyre S. Schools in socially contrasting neighbourhoods [gallery]. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2004;58ID - 2151:1027
Ellaway A, Macintyre S. You are where you live. Mental Health Today 2004:33-35
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Ellaway A, Macintyre S, Kearns A. Perceptions of place and health in socially contrasting neighbourhoods. Urban Studies 2001;38:2299-2316
Ellaway A, Macintyre S. Women in their place: gender and perceptions of neighbourhoods and health in the West of Scotland. In: Dyck I, Davis Lewis N, McLafferty S, editors Geographies of women's health. London: Routledge, 2001:265-281.
Gemmell I. Indoor heating, house conditions, and health. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2001;55:928-929pubmed
Ellaway A, Macintyre S. Shopping for food in socially contrasting localities. British Food Journal 2000;102:52-59open access
Macintyre S, Ellaway A. Ecological approaches: the rediscovery of the role of the physical and social environment. In: Berkman L, Kawachi I, editors Social epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000:332-348.
Macintyre S, Ellaway A. Neighbourhood cohesion and health in socially contrasting neighbourhoods: implications for the social exclusion and public health agendas. Health Bulletin 2000;60:450-456pubmed
Macintyre S, Ellaway A. Local opportunity structures, social capital and social inequalities in health: what can central and local government do?. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 1999;9:165-170
Ellaway A, Macintyre S. Does housing tenure predict health in the UK because it exposes people to different levels of housing related hazards in the home or its surroundings?. Health & Place 1998;4:141-150pubmed open access
Macintyre S, Ellaway A. Social and local variations in the use of urban neighbourhoods: a case study in Glasgow. Health & Place 1998;4:91-94pubmed
Ellaway A, Anderson AS, Macintyre S. Does area of residence affect body size and shape?. International Journal of Obesity 1997;21:304-308pubmed
Ellaway A, Macintyre S. Does where you live predict health-related behaviours? A case study in Glasgow. Health Bulletin 1996;54:443-446pubmed
Sooman A, Macintyre S. Health and perceptions of the local environment in socially contrasting neighbourhoods in Glasgow. Health & Place 1995:15-26open access
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Macintyre S, MacIver S, Sooman A. Area, class and health: should we be focusing on places or people?. Journal of Social Policy 1993;22:213-234open access
Sooman A, Macintyre S, Anderson AS. Scotland's Health: a more difficult challenge for some? The price and availability of healthy foods in socially contrasting localities in the West of Scotland. Health Bulletin 1993;51:276-284
Wyke S, Campbell G, MacIver S. The provision of primary care services in a working class and middle class locality in Glasgow. British Journal of General Practice 1992;42:271-275
- Health behaviours Any actions undertaken by an individual which have the potential to influence health (e.g. diet, smoking, physical activity, consulting with health care professionals)
- Social capital There are many definitions for this term. A major commentator in this field, Robert Putnam, describes social capital as features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit.