Analyses of the 11 to 16/16+ study found evidence of ‘school effects' on drinking as well as higher levels of drinking among 15 year-olds in lone-parent and step-families. High rates of alcohol abuse and dependence, as defined by DSM-IV criteria, were also found at age 15.
The longitudinal nature of the 11 to 16/16+ data also allowed exploration of the causal effects of alcohol (mis)use and antisocial behaviour between ages 11 and 15. Results suggested that antisocial behaviour is the main predictor of alcohol (mis)use and alcohol-related trouble. The reverse effect, alcohol (mis)use impacting on antisocial behaviour and alcohol-related trouble, was less clear.
The Youth and Health Programme also documented changes in the gender patterning of alcohol consumption over time, the earlier male excess among 15 year-olds in 1987 (seen in the Twenty-07 study) disappearing over the twelve year period to 1999 (in the 11 to 16/16+ study).
Young R, Sweeting H, West P. A longitudinal study of alcohol use and antisocial behaviour in young people. Alcohol and Alcoholism 2008;43:204-14pubmed open access
West P, Sweeting H, Leyland AH. School effects on pupils' health behaviours: evidence in support of the health promoting school. Research Papers in Education 2004;19:261-291
Sweeting H, West P. Young people's leisure and risk-taking behaviours: changes in gender patterning in the West of Scotland during the 1990s. Journal of Youth Studies 2003;6:391-412
Sweeting H, West P, Richards M. Teenage family life, lifestyles, and life chances: associations with family structure, conflict with parents and joint family activity. International Journal of Law, Policy & the Family 1998;12:15-46
- DSM-IV The 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association. It identifies the criteria for a diagnosis of all known mental disorders.