Mental Disorder (Psychiatry)
There has been considerable interest in the development of standard psychiatric instruments for use in psychiatric epidemiology. One of these, a self-administered, computerized, voice version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (Voice-DISC) was incorporated into the third wave of the 11 to 16/16+ study at age 15, and subsequently used again at 18. It was also used in selected secondary schools in the PaLS study. The Voice-DISC produces DSM-IV diagnoses which, at age 15, referred to anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, eating disorder, behaviour disorders (including ADHD and conduct disorder) and substance (nicotine, alcohol, cannabis and other drugs) abuse and dependence.
At age 15, around 1 in 5 of the 11 to 16/16+ study participants met the criteria for any disorder, which increased to almost 1 in 3 when substance abuse/dependence were included. Anxiety disorders and conduct disorders were the most common, the former being more prevalent among females, the latter more prevalent among males. Using comparable criteria for impairment, the prevalence of disorder was very similar to that in other British studies based on multiple informants, suggesting that a private computerized interview for single informants may to some extent compensate for the absence of additional reports by other informants.
Sweeting H, Young R, West P. GHQ increases among Scottish 15 year olds 1987-2006. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2009;44:579-86pubmed open access
Harvey D. Behaving badly: psychiatric and sociological perspectives on young people with 'conduct disorder' [PhD], MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit 2006.open access
West P, Sweeting H, Der G, Barton J, Lucas C. Voice-DISC identified DSM-IV disorders among 15 year olds in the West of Scotland. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42:941-949pubmed
West P, Sweeting H, Der G. The Voice DISC: a method for ascertaining psychiatric diagnoses in young people in the community. MRC Social and Public Health Science Unit Occasional Paper no. 4, Glasgow, 2000
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Cortisol is a hormone that is involved in the response to stress; it increases blood pressure and blood sugar levels and suppresses the immune system. Changes in serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with clinical depression, psychological distress, and such physiological stressors as hypoglycaemia, illness, fever and physical exertion.
- DSM-IV The 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association. It identifies the criteria for a diagnosis of all known mental disorders.
The study of the causes and distribution of psychiatric disorder in populations (see Epidemiology)